Technical Notes

To address particular issues associated with our products, BCE issues from time to time Technical Notes. The latest notes are listed below and can be downloaded by clicking on the note's title.

  • Technical note 1 addresses the importance of utilizing Snell's law and source wave raypaths when estimating interval velocities from DST.
  • Technical note 2 addresses the importance of event detection in Passive (Micro-)Seismic Monitoring.
  • Technical note 3 outlines the relationship between Peak Particle Velocity/Acceleration and Moment Magnitude in Passive (Micro-)Seismic Monitoring.
  • Technical note 4 addresses the design of sources for optimal source wave generation in DST.
  • Technical note 5 addresses the specification of the accelerometer cable for DST when using ICP® accelerometers.
  • Technical note 6 outlines the advantages of implementing a tri-axial systems over a uni-axial system for DST investigations.
  • Technical note 7 outlines the methodology utilized by BCE for reflection coefficient estimation for DST blind seismic deconvolution test bed simulation.
  • Technical note 8 describes pulse source distortions which occur due to Total Internal Reflections (TIRs).
  • Technical note 9 outlines a new BCE seismic signal processing algorithm which allows for the processing of seismograms which contain TIRs.
  • Technical note 10 addresses the question of whether geophones or accelerometers should be utilized for SCPT.
  • Technical note 11 outlines the application of batch Polarization Analysis for SH wave analysis in SCPT.
  • Technical note 11A outlines the application of Individual Polarization Analysis (IPA).
  • Technical note 12 outlines the importance of obtaining near surface interval velocity estimates and the application of the FMDSM technique when processing DST data.
  • Technical note 13 SC3-RAVTM training manual - outlines the recommended method for DST data analysis and aquisition.
  • Technical note 14 addresses whether it is preferable to implement pseudo-interval or true-Interval SCPT.
  • Technical note 15 describes the parameters used for Seismic Trace Characterization.
  • Technical note 16 outlines frequency spectrum “Bell-Curve” fitting for SNR estimation and as a component of DST interval velocity accuracy assessment.
  • Technical note 17 outlines BCE's newly developed SC1,3-RAV™ 2016 normal move out (NMO) tomographic algorithm allows for 2D interval velocity imaging derived from DST NMO data sets.
  • Technical note 18 outlines source wave "Smoothness" and "Peak Symmetry" parameters for seismic trace characterization. Now included in TN 15.
  • Technical note 19 outlines the implementation of parallel processing in BCE seismic analysis software to decrease CPU requirements.
  • Technical note 20 addresses data stacking for Downhole Seismic Testing.
  • Technical note 21 outlines a guide for post DST data analysis and seismic signal processing based upon Seismic Trace Characterization (STC) and the associated 5 trace metrics.
  • Technical Note 22 outlines a guide for changes in seismic data acquisition based on the Seismic Trace Characterization (STC) parameters described in Technical Note 15.
  • Technical Note 23 outlines BCE's new FMDSM absorption analysis algorithm.
  • Technical Note 24 addresses deriving absorption values with Downhole Seismic Testing data.
  • Technical note  25 outlines the recommended implementation details of the FMDSM absorption analysis algorihm.
  • Technical Note 26 outlines BCE's new tomographic stone column site characterization algorithm (updated 9/15/2019).
  • Technical Note 27 addresses DST source wave dispersion.
  • Technical Note 28 outlines BCE's suggested methodology for deriving source wave arrival times.
  • Technical Note 29 (updated April 29, 2020) outlines BCE’s newly proposed cone penetration tip resistance deconvolution algorithm utilizing Complex Cepstrum Analysis.
  • Technical Note 30 Implementation of a BRE-IFM smoother for qt estimation of noisy CPTU qm data.
  • Technical Note 31 A Response to Geomil’s White Paper on SCPT.
  • Technical Note 32 Hybrid Kalman and low pass frequency filtering technique to remove “spurious” cone bearing measurements.
  • Technical Note 33 Fitting higher order polynomials to DST arrival time data sets for high resolution imaging.
  • Technical Note 34 Proposed methodologies for estimating the cone bearing averaging/smoothing parameters.
  • Technical Note 35 Proposed methodology for estimating true sleeve friction values.
  • Technical Note 36 Incorporation of an Extended Kalman Filter into the FMDSMAA Algorithm


Baziw, E. and Verbeek, G. (2012), "Continuous SCPT Signal Enhancement by Identifying, Quantifying and Extracting Frequency Anomalies within Statistical Describable Background Noise", published in the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Geotechnical Site Characterization (ISC 4), Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco – Brazil, September 15-18, 2012.
Baziw, E. (2011). “Incorporation of Iterative Forward Modeling into the Principle Phase Decomposition Algorithm for Accurate Source Wave and Reflection Series Estimation”. IEEE Transactions on Geosci. Remote Sensing (TGRS), vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 650-660, Feb.

Baziw, E. (2009). Concepts in Downhole Seismic Testing. BCE Training Manual on the Theory and Application of Downhole Seismic Testing.
Baziw, E. (2007), "Implementation of the Principle Phase Decomposition Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions on Geosci. Remote Sensing (TGRS), vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 1775-1785, June.

Baziw, E. and Ulrych, T.J. (2006), "Principle Phase Decomposition - A New Concept in Blind Seismic Deconvolution”, IEEE Transactions on Geosci. Remote Sensing (TGRS), vol. 44, No. 8, pp. 2271-2281, Aug.
Baziw, E. (2005), "Real Time Seismic Signal Enhancement Utilizing a Hybrid Rao Blackwellised Particle Filter and Hidden Markov Model Filter", IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 418- 422, Oct.
Baziw, E., and Ulrych, T.J. (2004), "A Rao Blackwellised type algorithm for passive seismic event detection", In Proceedings of the 8th Technical Meeting of the Consortium for the Development of Specialized Seismic Techniques (CDSST 2004), Vancouver, 14 15 December, Department of Geophysics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 135-164.
Baziw, E., Tichy, J, and de Caprona, G (2000),"Data Acquisition in Seismic Cone Penetration Testing". In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Integrated Technical Approaches to Site Characterization (ITASCE), Argonne, IL, 11 14 Sept. 2000. Argonne National Laboratory. pp. 69-72.
Baziw, E., Campanella, R.G., and Sully, J.P. (1989), "Interpretation of Seismic Cone Data Using Digital Filtering Techniques". In Proceedings of the 12thInternational Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, 13 18 Aug. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Baziw (1993/1996) "Method for Determining Velocity and Confidence Level of Acoustic Waves in Penetrable Ground",U.S. Patent Number: 5,177,709, 1993/01/05; Canadian Patent: 2,077,387-1, 1996/01/09.
Baziw, E. (1996), "ECDIS Steering Algorithm for Vessel Autopilot", In Proceedings of the IEEE Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), Atlanta, Georgia, 22 26 April. IEEE Publication, pp. 103-113.

Available for purchase: E-book by Erick Baziw, "Concepts in Downhole Seismic Testing", which describes all aspects of downhole seismic testing and the role it can play in geotechnical investigations. Book price: $75 USD.

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